Referencing

When writing an essay, you need to support your arguments citing information from other sources. This distinguishes an academic argument from a personal view. Bibliographic citations in a paper:

  • demonstrate how broadly you have looked into your topic 
  • document your thesis and conclusions
  • establish the authenticity and legitimacy of the author’s thought, allowing the reader to refer to the original source
  • demonstrate your acknowledgement of the contribution of the sources you have used, and
  • help you avoid plagiarism.

Bibliographic references (citations)

Every time you use someone else’s ideas, either paraphrasing or copying them verbatim, you must refer within the text of your paper to the source from which you have taken the information. This is called ‘reference’ or ‘citation’ and the format will depend on the citation standard / style manual you have chosen to employ.

Bibliographic list (‘References’)

At the end of your paper you must create a ‘References’ list in which all sources that have been used must be included. The format will depend on the citation standard / style manual you have chosen to employ.

Bibliography/citation standards and style manuals

Bibliographies and citations must be created according to a certain international standard. There are several style manuals; however, only one must be used throughout the entire paper. 

It is important to consult your instructor who will guide you as to which style manual to use.

Refworks and other bibliographic management tools can automatically change the format of citations according to any major citation standard, such as Harvard, APA, Chicago, MLA, etc.

Bibliography/citation standards and style manuals